Construction and projects: Country Q&A tool

Search the Country Q&A in the Construction and Projects Global Guide by question and jurisdiction.

Step 1: Check the boxes to select the questions and the jurisdictions for comparison.
Step 2: Click the "submit" button.
Step 3: Scroll down to view answers and check law stated dates for each jurisdiction.

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Overview of the construction and projects sector

1. What are the main trends in the local construction and projects market? What are the most significant deals?

Procurement arrangements

2. Which are the most common procurement arrangements if the main parties are local? Are these arrangements different if some or all of the main parties are international contractors or consultants?

Transaction structures

3. What transaction structures and corporate vehicles are most commonly used in both local and international projects?


4. How are projects financed? How do arrangements differ for major international projects?

Security and contractual protections

5. What forms of security and contractual protections do funders typically require to protect their investments?

Standard forms of contracts

6. What standard forms of contracts are used for both local and international projects? Which organisations publish them?

Contractual issues

7. What risks are typically allocated to the contractor? How are these risks offset or managed?
8. How can liability be excluded or restricted under local law?
9. Do the parties usually agree a cap on liability? If yes, how is this usually fixed? What liabilities, if any, are typically not capped?
10. Are force majeure exclusions available and enforceable?
11. What contractual provisions are typically negotiated to cover material delays to the project?
12. How are material variations to the works usually dealt with in the contract?
13. What other contractual provisions are usually heavily negotiated by the parties?

Appointing construction professionals

14. How are construction professionals usually selected? Following selection, how are they then formally appointed?
15. What provisions of construction professionals' appointments are most heavily negotiated? Are liabilities routinely limited or capped in construction professionals' appointments?

Payment for construction work

16. What are the usual methods of payment for construction work? Are there ways for the contractor and consultants to secure payment or mitigate risks of non-payment under local law?


17. How do the parties typically manage their relationships with subcontractors?


18. What licences and other consents must contractors and construction professionals have to carry out local construction work? Are there any specific licensing requirements for international contractors and construction professionals?
19. What licences and other consents must a project obtain?

Projects insurance

20. What types of insurance must be maintained by law? Are other non-compulsory types of insurance maintained under contract?

Employment laws

21. What are the main employment law requirements for hiring local and foreign workers?
22. Which employment laws are relevant to projects?
23. Must an employer pay statutory redundancy or other payments at the end of a project? Are all employees eligible?

Health and safety

24. Which health and safety laws apply to projects?

Environmental issues

25. Which local laws regulate projects' effects on the environment?
26. Do new buildings need to meet carbon emissions or climate change targets?

Prohibiting corrupt practices

27. Are there any rules prohibiting corrupt business practices and bribery (particularly any rules targeting the projects sector)? What are the applicable civil or criminal penalties?


28. What rights do the client and funder have on the contractor's bankruptcy or insolvency?


29. Are public private partnerships (PPPs) common in local construction projects? If so, which sectors commonly use PPPs?
30. What local laws apply to PPPs?
31. What is the typical procurement/tender process in a PPP transaction? Does the government or another body publish standard forms of PPP project agreement and related contracts?

Dispute resolution

32. Which are the most common formal dispute resolution methods used? Which courts and arbitration organisations deal with construction disputes?
33. What are the most commonly used alternative dispute resolution (ADR) methods?


34. What are the main tax issues arising on projects?
35. Are any methods commonly used to mitigate tax liability on projects? Are there any tax incentives to carry out regeneration projects?

Other requirements for international contractors

36. Are there any specific requirements that international contractors or construction professionals must comply with?

Reform and trends

37. Are there any proposals to reform construction and projects law? Are there any new legal or regulatory trends affecting projects?
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