IP in business transactions: Norway

A guide to intellectual property law in Norway. The IP in Business Transactions Q&A gives an overview of maintaining an IP portfolio, exploiting an IP portfolio through assignment and licensing, taking security over IPRs, IP and M&A transactions, and the impact of IP on key areas such as competition law, employees and tax.

This Q&A is part of the multi-jurisdictional guide to IP law. For a full list of jurisdictional Q&As visit www.practicallaw.com/ip-mjg.

Steinar Lie and Kristine S Snyder, Bryn Aarflot AS
Contents

Overview of main IPRs

1. What are the main IPRs in your jurisdiction? How are they protected?

Patents

Patent applications and registrations are administered by the Norwegian Industrial Property Office (NIPO). Patent protection is granted for 20 years (though owners of medical inventions can apply for an additional five years of protection). Norwegian patents can also be acquired by submitting the application to the European Patent Office (EPO).

To be patentable, an invention must meet the criteria of the Patents Act, pursuant to which an invention must (section 2):

  • Be of a technical character.

  • Be susceptible of industrial application.

  • Be new in relation to prior art.

  • Differ essentially from prior art (that is, show an inventive step).

Trade marks

Registered and unregistered marks can be protected in Norway, provided they:

  • Are capable of graphical representation.

  • Are capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one undertaking from those of another (for example, words and combinations of words (including slogans, names, letters, numerals, figures and pictures), or the shape of the goods, their get-up or their packaging). The classification system established by the WIPO Nice Agreement Concerning the International Classification of Goods and Services for the Purposes of the Registration of Marks 1957 is applicable in Norway.

  • Do not consist exclusively of a shape that results from the nature of the goods themselves, is necessary to obtain a technical result or adds substantial value to the goods.

  • Are not in conflict with any absolute or relative grounds for refusal.

The absolute grounds include marks that are:

  • descriptive;

  • devoid of inherent distinctive character;

  • contrary to law;

  • liable to cause offence;

  • deceptive.

The relative grounds include marks that would infringe the right of another in Norway to a trade mark or a business sign, as well as marks that are confusingly similar to any such sign that someone else was using prior to the application date, and where the applicant acted in bad faith, being aware of that prior use.

The NIPO performs an examination of the absolute grounds on its initiative. The NIPO also performs an examination of the relative grounds, but only in relation to prior registered trade marks and applications. Conflicts based on prior business signs, copyrights and so on are only heard by the NIPO if the rights holder files an opposition.

The NIPO's decisions can be appealed to an independent Appeal Board (KFIR), and ultimately to the Oslo City Court. Rights holders can also file complaints directly to the Oslo City Court.

Trade marks registered with the NIPO are presumed valid until contested. Unregistered rights are acquired through use. To be registered, the holder of the mark must be sufficiently established and well-known in relation to the goods and services in the relevant market. A trade mark right is acquired without registration when the trade mark is established by use. A trade mark is considered to be established by use when and for as long as it is well known in the circle of trade in Norway for the relevant goods and services as someone's sign. If such use is established in only a part of Norway, the exclusive right will only have effect in that territory.

Copyright

For literary, scientific, artistic or musical works, copyright arises on the date of creation. The legal framework is the Copyright Act. Copyrights can be enforced but cannot be registered (there is no copyright registry in Norway).

Copyright includes moral rights, which cannot be waived unless a specific work is made available to the public in a prejudicial form.

Several rights holders can share copyright to a given work, and a given work may be dependent on a previous work (such as a translation of an original work).

Design rights

Design rights are registered with the NIPO, and the governing law is the Designs Act. Design protection runs five years from the filing date, and can be renewed up to four times. To be accepted a design must:

  • Be novel.

  • Have individual character.

  • Be clear of any statutory exclusions.

Trade secrets and confidential information

Trade secrets and confidential information are primarily protected and enforced by internal control and non-disclosure agreements (NDAs).

However, section 28 of the Marketing Control Act also offers some protection in relation to the misuse of confidential information (in work relations when disclosure is required in work related tasks and the employee is or should be aware of the confidential nature of that information). Section 28 also regulates the sharing of privileged information. Section 29 also regulates technical know-how.

For further information about the main IPRs, see Patents, trade marks, copyright and designs in Norway.

 

Maintaining IPRs

Search and information facilities

2. What facilities are available to conduct IP searches and obtain IP information on registered IP rights?

Patents

Norwegian patent searches are available through the Norwegian Industrial Property Office (NIPO) or are searchable through the NIPO website (www.patentstyret.no). Searches can be made in relation to the registrability and freedom to operate (whether the patent can be registered without infringing valid IP rights of others).

Information is available on the NIPO website. New, potentially infringing, patent applications can also be monitored through the NIPO website.

Trade marks

Norwegian trade mark searches (for example, in relation to registrability and absolute and relative grounds) are available through the NIPO. Searches can take one to two working days (express search) or five to ten working days (normal turnaround).

New, potentially infringing, trade mark applications can also be monitored by the NIPO.

Copyright

Not applicable.

Design rights

Norwegian design searches are available through the NIPO. New, potentially infringing, design applications can also be monitored by the NIPO.

Maintenance of main IPRs

 
3. What steps must a business take to maintain the registration and legally protectable status of its main IPRs?

Patents

Patents are renewed annually following a period of three years from the registration date (the first renewal is due after three years, then renewals must be made every year for 17 years). The renewal fees range between NOK700 and NOK6,500. The last years of renewal carry the highest rates.

Trade marks

Trade marks are renewed every ten years from the date of registration. If a mark has not been put to genuine use during the last five consecutive years, it is vulnerable to cancellation actions. However, the mark will remain registered and in force until it is challenged by a third party. Renewal costs for the three classes are NOK2,600. For each additional class (under the Nice classification system (see Question 1, Trade marks) the rate is NOK1,000.

Copyright

Copyright protection is not dependent on registration, since there is no copyright registry in Norway.

Design rights

Design protection runs for five years from the date of filing. Registrations are renewed for a period of five years up to a total of 25 years. The first renewal fee is NOK2,900 after which the fee increases to NOK5,000 for the last one.

Trade secrets and confidential information

Trade secrets and confidential information are maintained primarily by establishing a suitable non-disclosure regime.

Monitoring infringement

 
4. What steps can a business take to avoid infringing another party's IPRs and to monitor whether another party is infringing its IPRs?

Patents

Before introducing new products or entering into new markets, businesses should always consider conducting freedom to operate analysis. This involves conducting specific analysis in relation to whether the patent can be registered without infringing valid IP rights of others. A prior art search can be obtained from the Norway Intellectual Property Office (NIPO). However, the NIPO will not conduct an infringement analysis and this task is therefore best left with a specialised IP law firm, which will both:

  • Conduct the search.

  • Deliver a proper analysis.

For businesses monitoring potential infringements by another party, the main steps involve paying attention to the market and to competing products and conducting reverse engineering into such products when deemed necessary.

Potentially conflicting patent applications or any competitor's actions can be monitored through the NIPO website.

Trade marks

Businesses should always consider conducting an availability search before attempting to use and register a trade mark in Norway. Availability searches are available through the NIPO and can (to some extent) be carried out by the business itself by using the NIPO online database.

However, there is no register for famous marks or for use-acquired rights. Priority applications that are not-yet-filed in Norway will also fall short of the search. In addition, NIPO searches do not include conflicting company names or protected surnames.

For the important marks, businesses are therefore advised to obtain full availability searches from a suitable professional before registering them and putting them to use.

Copyright

There is no copyright registry in Norway. Businesses must therefore be alert to the copyright symbol (©), even if it is far from being applied by all right holders. In addition, it is necessary to implement proper internal business practices to ensure copyrighted works are not intentionally or accidentally infringed.

Design rights

The NIPO carries out searches for prior conflicting designs at a reasonable cost (NOK1,800).

All registered designs are searchable through the NIPO online database. However, carrying out detailed searches of the database can be time consuming and sometimes less accurate than a NIPO search.

The Marketing Control Act prohibits the unlawful imitation of products (regardless as to whether they are registered designs). It follows that it is imperative to keep a close eye on competing products in the market.

Trade secrets and confidential information

It is the employers' responsibility to ensure that their employees do not use unlawfully acquired information in their work, in particular, information obtained from past employers. This is normally resolved by contractual agreements between the employer and the employee, preferably including an indemnification clause for any claims resulting from the employee's misconduct.

Reverse engineering is not prohibited by Norwegian law.

 

Exploiting IPRs

5. What are the main steps in conducting an IP audit in your jurisdiction to determine the content of an IP portfolio?

Patents

Businesses should take inventory of all registered patents and attempt to determine the scope and market interest for each one. All applications should be evaluated in the light of the prior art, to determine the chances of a successful prosecution (this can be done through an IP law firm). The Norway Intellectual Property Office (NIPO) has developed customer-oriented electronic services in line with the Norwegian Government's digitisation programme. The notification system allows customers to monitor applications, competitors and specific fields relating to patents, trade marks and designs.

All patent licences, as well as their scope, duration, economical value and potential renegotiation dates, should be identified. All contracts governing licences and assignments should be evaluated to ensure they are valid and effective.

Trade marks

Businesses should take inventory of all registered trade marks and attempt to determine the scope and market interest for each one. All applications should be evaluated in the light of prior rights and the absolute grounds for refusal, to determine the chances of a successful prosecution (this can be done through the NIPO or through an IP law firm). The NIPO also has a monitoring system, which allows customers to monitor applications, competitors and specific fields relating to patents, trade marks and designs.

All licences, as well as their scope, duration, economical value and potential renegotiation dates, should be identified. All contracts governing licences and assignments should be evaluated to ensure they are valid and effective. Licences should also be supervised to avoid any unwanted abandonment, tarnish or dilution of the trade mark.

Copyright

Businesses should take inventory over all works created by the business that may potentially earn copyright. All licences should be evaluated and supervised.

Design rights

The steps required for an IP audit for design rights are the same as for trade marks (see above, Trade marks).

Trade secrets and confidential information

Businesses should identify and document all technical knowledge and other sensible information and ensure such information is marked as confidential. Businesses should also implement a non-disclosure regime for all employees.

 

Assignment

Scope of assignment

6. On what basis can the main IPRs be assigned?

Patents

Patents can be freely assigned in whole or in part.

Trade marks

Both registered and unregistered trade marks can be assigned, with or without goodwill (however, company names are excluded from this rule).

Copyright

With the exception of moral rights, copyright can be assigned in whole or in part. Assignments can be limited in time, scope and geographical area.

Design rights

Design rights can be assigned in whole or in part.

Trade secrets and confidential information

Trade secrets and confidential information can be assigned in whole or in part.

Formalities for assignment

 
7. What formalities are required to assign each of the main IPRs?

Patents

There are no formal requirements for assigning a patent.

Trade marks

There are no formal requirements for assigning a trade mark.

Copyright

There are no formal requirements for assigning copyright.

Design rights

There are no formal requirements for assigning a registered design.

Trade secrets and confidential information

No formal requirements.

Main terms for assignments

 
8. What main terms should be included in an assignment of IPRs?

The main terms that should be included in an assignment of IPRs include:

  • Details of the rights at issue.

  • Details of rights that are excluded.

  • Definitions.

  • Delivery date, cure period, inspection and acceptance.

  • Limitation of liability, how to allocate risk.

  • Warranties.

  • Indemnities.

  • Legal jurisdiction and governing law.

 

Licensing

Scope of licensing

9. On what basis can the main IPRs be licensed?

Patents

Patents licences can take the following forms:

  • Exclusive licence. In this form, the licencee will normally have all or most of the licencor's rights, including the right to enforce it.

  • Sole licence. In this form, the licencee has an exclusive right to the patent, but does not have the right to enforce it.

  • Non-exclusive licence. In this form, all licencees have the right to use the patented technology.

  • Compulsory licence. This form is used to avoid public detriment and anti-trust effects.

Trade marks

Trade mark licences can be exclusive, sole or non-exclusive.

Copyright

Copyright licences can be exclusive, non-exclusive or compulsory (for example, for use in public exams and so on).

Design rights

Design licences can be exclusive, sole or non-exclusive.

Trade secrets and confidential information

Trade secrets and confidential information can be made on an exclusive or non-exclusive basis.

Formalities for licensing

 
10. What are the formalities to license each of the main IPRs?

Patents

There are no formal requirements to license a patent.

Trade marks

There are no formal requirements to license a trade mark.

Copyright

There are no formal requirements to license copyrights.

Design rights

There are no formal requirements to license deign rights.

Trade secrets and confidential information

There are no formal requirements in relation to the licensing of trade secrets and/or confidential information.

Main terms for licences

 
11. What main terms should be included in an IP licence?

Depending on the IP right the licence covers, the following terms should be included:

  • The type of licence.

  • Details of the rights at issue.

  • Details of rights that are excluded (if any).

  • Definitions.

  • Delivery and acceptance.

  • Term and termination.

  • Limitation of liability.

  • Warranties.

  • Indemnity.

  • Export controls.

  • Assignability and sub-licensability.

  • Legal jurisdiction and governing law.

 

Taking security

12. What are the key issues in taking security over the main IPRs?

All types of IP rights can be secured under the Norwegian Securities Act. However, with the exception of patents (see below), security interests can only be created in IPRs which form part of the equipment of a business, and it is only possible for all of the business' equipment to be used as security (not individual assets).

As of 1 July 2015 it is possible to take security over patents, patent applications and patent licences in Norway. At the same time, new rules require that any rights in a patent must be registered to ensure protection.

Patent applications, granted patents and registered patent licences can all be offered as security for a charge. The charge must be registered at the Norwegian Industrial Property Office (Patentstyret) to be secured.

The main aim of this new provision is to make it easier to raise capital for start-up businesses, which are unable to get a bank loan, and other companies that need funds to develop new ideas. This can be done by offering security over patents, patent applications and licences.

Valuing the secured IPR is often difficult, and depending on the market and the nature of the IPR enforcing the security can also be problematic.

 
13. What are the main security interests taken over IPRs?

Patents

It is possible to take security over patents, patent applications and patent licences in Norway.

Trade marks

Security interests can only be created in trade marks which forms part of the equipment of a business, and only all of the equipment of a business can be used as security (not individual assets).

Copyright

Security interests can only be created in copyright which forms part of the equipment of a business, and only all of the equipment of a business can be used as security (not individual assets).

Design rights

Security interests can only be created in design rights which forms part of the equipment of a business, and only all of the equipment of a business can be used as security (not individual assets).

Trade secrets and confidential information

Security interests can only be created in trade secrets which forms part of the equipment of a business, and only all of the equipment of a business can be used as security (not individual assets).

 

M&A

Due diligence

14. What IPR-related due diligence is commonly carried out in both a share sale or merger and an asset sale?

Share sale or merger

Share sale or merger due diligence should include:

  • Identification and assessment of all registered and unregistered IPRs held by the target company.

  • Identification and assessment of the target company's licensed IPRs.

  • The identification and assessment of all IPR-related contracts.

  • Conducting a freedom to operate analysis.

  • Identification of any disputes.

  • Securing documentation of the necessary know-how to use the target company's IPRs.

Asset sale

Asset sale due diligence should include:

  • Identification and assessment of all registered and unregistered IPRs held by the target company.

  • Identification and assessment of the target company's licensed IPRs.

  • Identification and assessment of all IPR-related contracts.

  • Confirmation that all IPRs are assignable to the purchaser.

  • Conducting a freedom to operate analysis.

  • Identification of any disputes.

  • Securing documentation of the necessary know-how to use the target company's IPRs.

Warranties/indemnities

 
15. What IPR-related warranties and/or indemnities are commonly given by the seller to the buyer in both a share sale or merger and an asset sale?

Both share sale/merger and asset sales include warranties and/or indemnities given by the seller to the purchaser. These commonly include warranties and/or indemnities that:

  • The IPRs are accurate and complete.

  • The IPRs are valid.

  • There are no conflicting third-party rights.

  • Their ownership of the IPRs is not contested.

  • The purchaser gets all rights in the IPRs that are required to operate the business.

Transfer of IPRs

 
16. How are the main IPRs transferred in both a share sale or merger and an asset sale?

Share sale or merger

In a share sale/merger, the IPRs follow the company affected by the transaction (or part of it).

Asset sale

In an asset sale, specific clauses must be made in relation to the IPRs (unless it is clear from the sales agreement that the IPRs are to be included).

 

Joint ventures

17. Is it common for companies to set up joint ventures in your jurisdiction to develop projects that heavily involve IPRs?

Setting up joint ventures to develop IPR-heavy projects is quite common. In such projects, the main provisions in the agreement relate to which party is responsible for contributing in what way, and which party is entitled to which IPRs during the developing process and further into the production stage.

 

Competition law

Main provisions and common issues

18. What are the main provisions of your national competition law that can affect the exploitation of the main IPRs?

The main provisions of the Norwegian Competition Act that can affect the exploitation of a company's main IPRs are:

  • Section 10. This prohibits any arrangement which prevents, restricts or distorts competition in trade in any goods or service.

  • Section 11. This prohibits abuses of dominant market position in trade.

Mergers and acquisitions which could lead to a significant restriction of trade are prohibited (Chapter 4, Norwegian Competition Act).

 
19. What are the most common national competition law issues that arise in the exploitation of the main IPRs?

The most common competition law issues which affect the exploitation of IPRs in Norway are:

  • Price fixing.

  • Terms and agreements that constitute an abuse of a dominant position.

  • Agreements on market sharing.

Exclusions/exemptions

 
20. What exclusions or exemptions are available for national competition law issues involving the exploitation of the main IPRs?

No specific exclusions or exemptions for competition law issues concerning IPRs are available under national law. However, as a member of the European Economic Area (EEA), Norway is bound by the EU block exemption in the Technology Transfer Block Exemption Regulation (TTBE).

The TTBE provides an automatic exemption from the prohibition on anti-competitive agreements under Article 101 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) if the following conditions are met:

  • The maximum share thresholds between the concerned parties are either:

    • 20% for arrangements between competitors; or

    • 30% for agreements between non-competitors.

  • The provisions must not contain any of the restrictions set out in Article 4 of TTBE (such as resale price maintenance).

 

Advertising

21. To what extent do advertising laws impact on the use of third party trade marks?

Advertisement is regulated by the Norwegian Marketing Control Act. Comparative advertising (including use of third party trade marks) is permitted provided the comparison of the products is correct, relevant and fair.

 

Employees and consultants

22. Who owns each of the main IPRs created by an employee in the course of his employment? Must compensation be paid to the employee? What main steps can an employer take to ensure it owns each of the main IPRs?

Ownership

The rules relating to ownership of patentable technology created by an employee is governed by the Employee's Invention Act. The general ownership rule is that an employee has the same right to his invention as other inventors unless:

  • The invention is created as a result of the employee's normal work.

  • The invention falls within the employer's normal area of business.

If the invention is created under the circumstances listed above, the employer can claim full or partial ownership to the invention. The ownership rule is declaratory (that is, the individual contract between the employer and the employee prevails over the rules of the Employee's Invention Act).

Compensation

Under the Employee's Invention Act, the employee must receive a reasonable monetary compensation for the patents created by him. The amount of compensation must be based on a specific and quantifiable assessment, and determined according to a sliding scale (calculated based on the extent to which the employee's effort exceeded what was expected of him). The right to reasonable compensation is not declaratory and cannot be waived by agreement.

Main steps

Businesses are advised to include a general IPRs clause in the employment contract which encompasses all IPRs arising from the employee's work. It should be noted in particular, that copyright does not automatically pass to the employer.

 
23. Who owns each of the main IPRs created by an external consultant? What main steps can a business take to ensure it owns each of the main IPRs?

Ownership

Patent rights and copyright belongs to the inventor/author unless otherwise specifically set out in the contract. Formally, trade mark rights belong to the person or entity listed as the "holder" in the application. However, in most cases the nature of the commission will mean that business will have the right to register and use the mark. The copyright to a logo will belong to the author unless otherwise agreed.

Main steps

Businesses are advised to include a clear and unambiguous IPRs clause in the commission contract.

 

Tax

24. What are the main taxes payable by a licensor on the licensing of the main IPRs?

Royalties from licensing IPRs are subject to a 27% taxation (since 2014). They are also subject to a 25% value added tax (VAT).

 
25. What are the main taxes payable by a seller on the sale of the main IPRs?

Profits from the sale of IPRs are considered capital gains and are taxed at 28%.

 

Cross-border issues

26. What international IP treaties is your jurisdiction party to?

Norway is party to the following international IP treaties:

  • WIPO Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property 1883 (Paris Convention).

  • Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works 1896.

  • Nice Agreement Concerning the International Classification of Goods and Services for the Purposes of the Registration of Marks 1961.

  • Locarno Agreement Establishing an International Classification for Industrial Designs 1971.

  • Vienna Agreement Establishing an International Classification of the Figurative Elements of Marks 1973.

  • Convention Establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization 1974.

  • Strasbourg Agreement Concerning the International Patent Classification 1975.

  • Rome Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations 1978.

  • Convention for the Protection of Producers of Phonograms Against Unauthorized Duplication of Their Phonograms 1978.

  • Patent Cooperation Treaty 1980.

  • Budapest Treaty on the International Recognition of the Deposit of Micro-organisms for the Purposes of Patent Procedure 1986.

  • Protocol Relating to the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks 1996.

  • Hague Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Industrial Designs 2010.

A detailed list of treaties can be found at www.wipo.int/wipolex/en/profile.jsp?code=NO

 
27. Are foreign IPRs recognised in your jurisdiction?

Patents and Trade marks

Norway is a member of the WIPO Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property 1883 (Paris Convention). Under the Paris Convention, patent and trade mark applications in another member state enjoy national treatment (that is, the same treatment as if they were filed in Norway).

Patent applications get a 12-month priority deadline in all member states.

Norway is signatory to the Patent Cooperation Treaty. Under this Treaty, international patent applications which have been given an international filing will have the same effect as a patent application filed in Norway on the same date. The time limit for entering the national phase in Norway is within 31 months from the international filing date or, if priority is claimed, from the date priority is claimed.

Norway is a signatory to the Convention on the Grant of European Patents. Under this Convention, an EU patent application that is valid in Norway and for which the European Patent Office has accorded a filing date will have the same effect as an application filed in Norway on the same date. If, in accordance with the European Patent Convention, the application has priority from an earlier date than the filing date, this priority date will also apply in Norway.

Norway is also member of the Agreement on the application of Article 65 EPC – London Agreement. This means that only the claims and not the entire application must be translated into Norwegian.

Trade marks

Norway is a member of the Madrid Agreement and Madrid Protocol. This means that trade marks applied for (Protocol states only) or registered in the country of origin receive the same treatment in Norway.

Copyright

As Norway is a member of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works 1896, copyrighted works from any other member state also enjoys protection in Norway.

Design rights

Norway is signatory to the Hague Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Industrial Designs 2010. Under the Hague System, nationals of member states can register designs in multiple member states by filing one application with the World International Property Organization (WIPO). As opposed to the Madrid System, the Hague System does not require a basic (national) application or registration.

 

Reform

28. Are there any proposals for reform?

There are currently no proposals for reform.

 

Online resources

LOVDATA

W www.lovdata.no

Description. This website provides a searchable database of laws, bye-laws, preparatory legislative works and case law, as well other information regarding administrative practice.

 

Assignment of a copyright: Formalities

Jurisdiction

Must assignments of copyright be in written form?

Must an assignment of copyright be signed by the assignor and/or assignee?

Are there any additional execution formalities?

Must an assignment of copyright be registered or recorded (to be effective against a third party)?

Norway

In principle no (but preferably yes).

Not applicable.

No.

No.

 

Contributor profiles

Steinar Lie, Partner

Bryn Aarflot AS

T +47 4690 3000
F +47 2200 3131
E sl@baa.no
W www.baa.no

Professional qualifications. Norway, attorney-at-law

Areas of practice. IPR litigation, trade mark and design prosecution, copyright, unfair competition.

Non-professional qualifications. BA in literary science, University of Oslo

Recent transactions. Litigating at the district court and appeal court for large international companies concerning patent infringement, trade mark conflict and domain name dispute.

Professional associations/memberships. Member of the bar association.

Languages. Norwegian and English. Working knowledge of Spanish and German.

Kristine S Snyder, Partner

Bryn Aarflot AS

T +47 4690 3000
F +47 2200 3131
E kss@baa.no
W www.baa.no

Professional qualifications. Norway, attorney-at-law

Areas of practice. IPR litigation, trade mark and design prosecution, copyright, unfair competition.

Recent transactions. Litigating at the district court and appeal court for large international companies concerning patent infringement, trade mark conflict and a domain name dispute.

Professional associations/memberships. Member of the bar association.

Languages. Norwegian and English. Working knowledge of German.


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