Employment and Employee Benefits: Country Q&A tool

Search the Country Q&A in the Employment and Employee Benefits Global Guide by question and jurisdiction.

Step 1: Check the boxes to select the questions and the jurisdictions for comparison.
Step 2: Click the "submit" button.
Step 3: Scroll down to view answers and check law stated dates for each jurisdiction.

Choose your questions - Select all/De-select all

Choose your jurisdictions - Select all/De-select all

Scope of employment regulation

1. Do the main laws that regulate the employment relationship apply to:
  • Foreign nationals working in your jurisdiction?

  • Nationals of your jurisdiction working abroad?

 

Employment status

2. Does the law distinguish between different categories of worker? If so, what are the material differences in entitlement to statutory employment rights and are there any maximum time periods for which each category of worker can be engaged?
 

Recruitment

3. Are any grants or incentives available for employing people? Do any filings need to be made when employing people?
 

Background checks

4. Are there any restrictions or prohibitions on carrying out background checks in relation to applicants?
 

Permission to work

5. What prior approvals do foreign nationals require to work in your country?
 

Restrictions on managers and directors

6. Are there any restrictions on who can be a manager or company director?
 

Regulation of the employment relationship

7. How is the employment relationship governed and regulated?
 
8. What are the main points to consider if an employer wants to unilaterally change the terms and conditions of employment?
 

Minimum wage

9. Is there a national (or regional) minimum wage?
 

Restrictions on working time

10. Are there restrictions on working hours? Can an employee opt out on either an individual or collective basis?
 

Holiday entitlement

11. Is there a minimum paid holiday entitlement?
 

Illness and injury of employees

12. What rights do employees have to time off in the case of illness or injury? Are they entitled to sick pay during this time off? Can an employer recover any of the cost from the government?
 

Statutory rights of parents and carers

13. What are the statutory rights of employees who are:
  • Parents (including maternity, paternity, surrogacy, adoption and parental rights, where applicable)?

  • Carers (including those of disabled children and adult dependants)?

 

Continuous periods of employment

14. Does a period of continuous employment create any statutory rights for employees? If an employee is transferred to a new entity, does that employee retain their period of continuous employment? If so, on what type of transfer?
 

Fixed term, part-time and agency workers

15. To what extent are temporary and agency workers entitled to the same rights and benefits as permanent employees? To what extent are part-time workers entitled to the same rights and benefits as full-time workers?
 

Data protection

16. Are there any requirements protecting employee privacy or personal data? If so, what are an employer's obligations?
 

Discrimination and harassment

17. What protection do employees have from discrimination or harassment, and on what grounds?
 

Whistleblowers

18. Do whistleblowers have any protection?
 

Termination of employment

19. What rights do employees have when their employment contract is terminated?
 
20. What protection do employees have against dismissal? Are there any specific categories of protected employees?
 

Redundancy/layoff

21. How are redundancies/layoffs defined, and what rules apply on redundancies/layoffs? Are there special rules relating to collective redundancies?
 

Employee representation and consultation

22. Are employees entitled to management representation (such as on the board of directors) or to be consulted about issues that affect them? Is employee consultation or consent required for major transactions (such as acquisitions, disposals or joint ventures)?
 
23. What remedies are available if an employer fails to comply with its consultation duties? Can employees take action to prevent any proposals going ahead?
 

Consequences of a business transfer

24. Is there any statutory protection of employees on a business transfer?
 

Employer and parent company liability

25. Are there any circumstances in which:
  • An employer can be liable for the acts of its employees?

  • A parent company can be liable for the acts of a subsidiary company's employees?

 

Employer insolvency

26. What rights do employees have on the insolvency of their employer? Is there a state fund which guarantees repayment of certain employment debts?
 

Health and safety obligations

27. What are an employer's obligations regarding the health and safety of its employees?
 

Taxation of employment income

28. What is the basis of taxation of employment income for:
  • Foreign nationals working in your jurisdiction?

  • Nationals of your jurisdiction working abroad?

 
29. What is the rate of taxation on employment income? Are any social security contributions or similar taxes levied on employers and/or employees?
 

Bonuses

30. Is it common to reward employees through contractual or discretionary bonuses? Are there restrictions or guidelines on what bonuses can be awarded?
 

Intellectual property (IP)

31. If employees create IP rights in the course of their employment, who owns the rights?
 

Restraint of trade

32. Is it possible to restrict an employee's activities during employment and after termination? If so, in what circumstances can this be done? Must an employer continue to pay the former employee while they are subject to post-employment restrictive covenants?
 

Proposals for reform

33. Are there any proposals to reform employment law or pensions law in your jurisdiction?
 
{ "siteName" : "PLC", "objType" : "PLC_Doc_C", "objID" : "1247389001646", "objName" : "Employment and Employee Benefits Country QandA tool", "userID" : "2", "objUrl" : "http://uk.practicallaw.com/cs/Satellite/resource/8-503-0229?null", "pageType" : "Resource", "academicUserID" : "", "contentAccessed" : "true", "analyticsPermCookie" : "2-15feb910:159b615993f:1830", "analyticsSessionCookie" : "2-15feb910:159b615993f:1831", "statisticSensorPath" : "http://analytics.practicallaw.com/sensor/statistic" }